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Quit India Movement day

Young Bites. Dated: 8/9/2018 8:42:10 AM


On 9thAugust 1942 at the All-India Congress Committee session in Bombay, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi launched the 'Quit India' movement. The next day, Gandhi, Nehru and many other leaders of the Indian National Congress were arrested by the British Government. He called for a voluntary British withdrawal from India. Disorderly and non-violent demonstrations took place throughout the country in the following days.
Gandhi seized upon the failure of the Cripps Mission, the advances of the Japanese in South-East Asia and the general frustration with the British in India. He called for a voluntary British withdrawal from India. From 29 April to 1 May 1942, the All India Congress Committee assembled in Allahabad to discuss the resolution of the Working Committee. Although Gandhi was absent from the meeting, many of his points were admitted into the resolution: the most significant of them being the commitment to non-violence. On 14 July 1942, the Congress Working Committee met again at Wardha and resolved that it would authorise Gandhi to take charge of the non-violent mass movement. The Resolution, generally referred to as the 'Quit India' resolution, was to be approved by the All India Congress Committee meeting in Bombay in August. All India Congress Committee met in Bombay and ratified the 'Quit India' resolution. Gandhi called for 'Do or Die'. The next day, on 9 August 1942, Gandhi, members of the Congress Working Committee and other Congress leaders were arrested by the British Government under the Defence of India Rules. The Working Committee, the All India Congress Committee and the four Provincial Congress Committees were declared unlawful associations under the Criminal Law Amendment Act of 1908. The assembly of public meetings were prohibited under rule 56 of the Defence of India Rules. The arrest of Gandhi and the Congress leaders led to mass demonstrations throughout India. Thousands were killed and injured in the wake of the 'Quit India' movement. Strikes were called in many places. The British swiftly suppressed many of these demonstrations by mass detentions; more than 100,000 people were imprisoned.
The 'Quit India' movement, more than anything, united the Indian people against British rule. Although most demonstrations had been suppressed by 1944, upon his release in 1944 Gandhi continued his resistance and went on a 21-day fast. By the end of the Second World War, Britain's place in the world had changed dramatically and the demand for independence could no longer be ignored.
By the middle of 1942, Japanese troops were approaching the borders of India. Pressure was mounting from China, the United States and Britain to solve the issue of the future status of India before the end of the war. In March 1942, the Prime Minister dispatched Sir Stafford Cripps, a member of the War Cabinet, to India to discuss the British Government's Draft Declaration. The draft granted India Dominion status after the war but otherwise conceded few changes to the British Government Act of 1935. The draft was unacceptable to the Congress Working Committee who rejected it. The failure of the Cripps Mission further estranged the Congress and the British Government.
Quit India day is observed every year on August 9 to mark the anniversary of Quit India movement. Quit India Movement was truly a turning point in India’s struggle for freedom. Father of the nation, Gandhi ji gave a call to the masses and urged them to raise their voice against British and asked them to “Quit India”. Function is held in schools where skits, speeches are staged. The significance of the day is highlighted. The entire nation fills with a sense of patriotism and pay tributes to martyrs of the freedom struggle and the political leaders lay wreaths on the memorial. Kranti Diwas is a day observed to remember the historic ‘Quit India Movement’ initiated by Gandhi and Indian National Congress. This day is celebrated by national integration speeches, tributes to various freedom ghters, organisation of national level programmes apart from various other events. The term ‘Kranti’ stands for ‘Revolution’ and ‘Divas’ stands for ‘Day’, a day for revolution. Quit India movement date was decided to be on 9 August 1942. Quit India Movement was a civil disobedience movement which was declared as a passive resistance nicknamed ‘Do or Die’. The movement was to be carried out through peaceful mass protests and closing of business so as to force the British Government out of India, once and for all.
In March 1942, Cripps' Mission proposed a deal to Indian National Congress. They asked for full cooperation during the war and in return they would get certain powers from the crown and the Viceroy to an elected Indian legislature. This proposal was rejected as INC wanted self governance and the terms of mission were not clearly dened regarding the power to govern. Clearly it was a shrewd British tact which failed.
On August 8, 1942 the Quit India Resolution was passed at the Bombay session of the All India Congress Committee (AICC). The resolution demanded complete independence from the British government. The draft proposed massive civil disobedience if the British did not accede to the demands. This was done in the wake of false promises and the growing unrest of the populace against the British regime. In a speech at Gowalia Tank, Bombay (now known as August Kranti Maidan), Gandhi told Indians to follow non-violent civil disobedience. His words for this movement were – “We shall either free India or die in the attempt; we shall not live to see the perpetuation of our slavery" and "Let every Indian consider himself to be a free man ... Mere going to jail would not do."
On 9 August 1942, the movement started but the British regime was quick to act, they arrested Gandhiji and all the members of the Party's Working Committee (national leadership). Due to the arrest of major leaders, a young Aruna Asaf Ali presided over the AICC session on 9 August and hoisted the ag. Despite lack of direct leadership, large protests and demonstrations were held all over the country. Various social welfare activities are organised on this day like blood donation camps, planting of trees etc. On this day students can dress up themselves as various freedom ghters and say a few words on what personailty do they represent to make other students aware of our freedom fighters. In college / school bulletin board one can pin up information, drawing, pictures of the movement to represent the day. Movies, documentaries, slide shows can be organised to remember the day.

 

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